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Will World Take Gradual Approach or Leapfrog Approach to adopt Evs?

February 15, 2022

 In the background of the climate change-related challenges, the world has now adopted EV as future mobility. But there is quite an uncertainty regarding which pathway the world will adopt for passenger and freight vehicles. Whether world will gradually transition from ICE (drive train) vehicles to Evs or will take gradual route from HEV(hybrid electric vehicles) to PHEV to EV will depend on technology development of the EV ecosystem and the government s Ev's policy.

 

In the background of the climate change-related challenges, the world has now adopted EV as future mobility. But there is quite an uncertainty regarding which pathway the world will adopt for passenger and freight vehicles. Whether world will gradually transition from ICE (drive train) vehicles to Evs or will take gradual route from HEV(hybrid electric vehicles) to PHEV to EV will depend on technology development of the EV ecosystem and the government s Ev's policy.

HEV

The HEVs run on both heat motors and electric motors.

The heat motor runs the car as well as charges the battery to run the electric motor.

In certain situations when a conventional ICE engine is less efficient, users can use an electric motor to run the HEV.This will in tern reduce wear and tear on the combustion engine and brake pads and enhance the vehicle’s overall efficiency. HVs can reduce gasoline usage but cannot address climate change and air pollution-related concerns.

Plug-in-Hybrid Electric (PHEV )

PHEV has the best of both ICE and Evs. With both a conventional drive train and an electric drive train, It can provide users long range with a small battery. But because of a complex drivetrain, PHEV needs more maintenance. Thanks to the dependency on fossil fuels, PHEV does not address climate change and air pollution-related concerns.

EV

ICE-based vehicles run on heat engines. Heat engine requires hundreds (over 2000)of precisely crafted moving parts that make the machine heavy and expensive. Heat and explosions cause a lot of wear and tear, which needs maintenance. The heat engine produces CO2, NOX, particulate matter, and carcinogenic substances, which can cause global warming, air pollution, lung-related ailments, and cancer.

Evs are run on an electric engine. As Electric Engine has only one moving part (rotor), it can last longer without maintenance. With 100% efficiency, electric motors are four times more efficient than heat engines (25% efficiency). Evs are run on an electric drive train. They don’t need a conventional drivetrain, fuel tank, internal combustion engine, differential, gearbox, or exhaust system.

Apart from running on grid-based electricity, it can also run on off-grid electricity from renewable sources such as solar panels on the road, wind at the roadside, or solar panels at the top of vehicles. EVs can accelerate faster than ICE vehicles. Evs use regenerative braking, which exerts less stress on tires and brakes. Thus, EVs reduce maintenance costs and reclaim energy.

Driving cost

Although electricity prices vary at offices, homes, and public charging depending on the location or billing system (use per kWh/ session/ hour), EVs’ driving cost for EVs is lower than ICE-based vehicles. And with smart charging, users can charge EV at lower prices during (non-peak hours)parking.

Insurance cost

The lack of engine sound and faster acceleration in EVs may induce users to indulge in rash driving, leading to more road accidents. Considering this uncertainty, higher insurance cost and higher repairing cost(as EV needs specialized repairing) may increase TCO(total cost of ownership). Furthermore, rapid development in battery technology may make the existing EVs obsolete with reducing resale value.

Government policy

The government can reward the EV sector by lowering federal or local taxes, free parking on EVs, or supporting the entire EV ecosystem. The government can disincentive the ICE vehicles by imposing CO2 emission taxes or banning diesel vehicles from entering the cities.

The ICE age is over, and the EV age is coming. But the million-dollar question is how fast this disruption is. Evs have price parity in the luxury segment with ICE-based vehicles. The main stumbling blocks for the adoption of Evs in the mass segment such as sticker price, range anxiety, and EV charging infrastructure will crumble with innovation in battery chemistry and economies of scale.

Furthermore, motor technology and advanced power electronics will reduce the total cost of (TCO) Evs and bring the price parity of EVs with ICE-based vehicles in the mass category. Battery swapping, wireless charging, and tapping solar and wind along with roadside or on the road or placing higher efficient solar panels on the car will further expand EV charging avenues.

The rapid technological advances in EV s ecosystem along with favourable public policy will enable the world to directly transition to EV from ICE based mobility.

 

By  Nikson Mogaria   |  February 15, 2022