February 15, 2022
The age of EV has set, and the rapid development in all the EV ecosystem components will disrupt the automobile sector. The trends in EV design, battery chemistry, power electronics, and electric motor will speed up Ev's adoption in the mass segment. Furthermore, it will enable India to realise its ambitious plan to have 30% new EV sales by 2030.
Here are four Megatrends of the EV ecosystem that will revolutionize the EV sector
1. New Design EV
Rather than building EVs based on the existing ICE car design, EV manufacturers will adopt a new bottom-up flexible approach to create agile, lighter, cost-effective Evs, which can accommodate larger batteries.
2. Higher Battery capacity
The new generation high capacity batteries (Li-air and li-sulphur) with a maximum energy density up to 1000Wh/Kg from the current Lithium-ion energy density of/0.25 kWh/kg will remove range anxiety( 200-300 mile range) and ensure safe charging. In the future, increasing the battery pack from 400v to 800 v will increase charging power for the same charging current. The application of supercapacitors will enhance the power densities of batteries, particularly handy for peak power requirements during acceleration and braking. The availability of fast chargers on the highway will speed up the adoption of EV in heavy-duty trucks and freight carrier vehicles.
3 Advanced Power Electronics
EV is run on the concept of a four-quadrant converter operation, which needs power electronics converters such as an on-board charger(AC-DC), the traction battery converter(DC-DC), the auxiliary battery converter(DC-DC), and motor drive (rectifiers). These power converters are made of high-power semiconductor switches such as Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor(IGBT) and Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFETs). They use different switching states to change the magnitude and the waveform of the voltage and current between the input and output. The application of wide bandgap semiconductor devices (such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride-based switches) will increase the switching frequency of power converters and increase power density. Integrating different power train components and controllers in the EV will reduce wiring needs and ensure thermal management of powertrain components. It will increase power density, which will decrease vehicle weight.
4. Advanced motor
EV motors are four times more efficient than gasoline or diesel engines. They are lighter, cheaper, and don't need any maintenance. Depending on the specific need, such as size, weight, maximum torque, efficiency, and cost, manufacturers can choose an induction motor(asynchronous motor), permanent magnet motor, and synchronous reluctance motor.
An induction motor is the first choice of manufacturers as it is simple to construct and control the alternating current frequency. .it is cheaper as it does not need a permanent magnet, brushes, position sensor, or starting mechanism. Although induction motors have many advantages, the induced currents in the coil cause efficiency losses and generate heat in the rotor, thus needing cooling for the rotor.
To overcome the above deficiencies of Induction motors, manufacturers can opt for permanent magnet motors(synchronous), which avoids losses and heat development in the rotor. Depending on the need for torque and speed, manufacturers can opt for outrunner or in-runner motor. Although permanent magnet motors are the lightest, smallest, silent, and more efficient motors, they need scarce earth metals such as neodymium, making them expensive. It is complex to run as it requires a position sensor, starter mechanism, and a more advanced controller.
Manufactures can opt for synchronous reluctance motor, which overcomes permanent magnet motors' deficiencies and provides higher torque and efficiency (especially at higher speed) comparable to permanent magnet motors. EV manufacturers can overcome lower efficiency at a lower speed by redesigning the rotor using advanced motor controllers. An improvement in the algorithm can reduce the higher inherent noise and torque.
It is lighter, compact, and cost-effective (as it does not need a permanent magnet). It is reliable and provides optimum performance as a permanent magnet motor.
Similar to solar technology development, the rapid technology development in battery chemistry, power electronics, electric motors, and innovative EV design will significantly reduce the sticker price and pave the way for the mass adoption of Evs in the coming years.